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Judicial bodies & Prosecutor’s Office

in the spanish justice system

The Judicial Bodies in Spain

The Supreme Court | The National High Court | The High Courts of Justice | Provincial Courts | Others


The judicial bodies in Spain are:


■ The Supreme Court with jurisdiction throughout Spain, is the supreme court in all jurisdictional orders, except as regards constitutional safeguards, which fall within the purview of the Constitutional Court.

■ The National High Court with jurisdiction throughout Spain, is a specialised court that hears certain cases assigned to it by law. In matters of criminal law, for instance, the National High Court is competent to determine cases concerning offences against the crown or members of government, organised crime offences, such as terrorism, drug trafficking, or counterfeiting, and offences committed outside Spain wherever Spanish law or international treaties provide that jurisdiction falls to the Spanish courts.

■ The High Courts of Justice of the autonomous regions with jurisdiction within the territorial scope of the respective devolved regions. Each regional High Court is structured into four divisions: civil, criminal, judicial review and employment.

■ Provincial Courts are concerned with civil and criminal matters, and their respective benches may have the same composition. Each Provincial Court has its seat in the capital of the province within its jurisdiction.

The judicial bodies in Spain

The judicial bodies in Spain


■ Courts of first instance, examining courts, commercial courts, gender violence courts, criminal courts, judicial review courts, employment courts, juvenile courts and prison supervision courts comprise a single judge who hears cases assigned to his or her jurisdiction by law.

■ Justices of the Peace Courts (magistrate’s courts) operate in municipalities having no court of first instance or examining court.

The Public Prosecutor’s Office is a functionally independent body within the judiciary. It carries out its duties by means of its own bodies in accordance with the principles of unity of action and hierarchical subordination, and the principles of legality and impartiality.

The objects of this institution are to assist the enforcement of justice in defence of legality, the rights of citizens and the public interest protected by the law, whether on its own motion or at the behest of interested parties, and to safeguard the independence of the courts and defend the public interest in court proceedings.

The State’s Attorney General, appointed by the King at the behest of the government and supported by the General Council of the Judiciary, is the head of the Public Prosecutor’s Office and represents that office throughout Spain. The State’s Attorney General has powers to issue orders and instructions and is in charge of the general management and supervision of the Public Prosecutor’s Office.

Source: – Ministerio de la Presidencia (CIF S-2811001-C). Complejo de la Moncloa 28071 Madrid – 06/12/2023

Law Offices of Palladino Pellón & Associates – Criminal Defense Lawyers | The judicial bodies in Spain